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Stomachion: When you have a puzzle, you don’t have a brain-teaser — you have stomach trouble

BALTIMORE — “The Archimedes Palimpsest” could well be the title of a Robert Ludlum thriller, though its plot’s esoteric arcana might also be useful for Dan Brown in his next variation on “The Da Vinci Code.” It features a third-century B.C. Greek mathematician (Archimedes) known for his playful brilliance; his lost writings, discovered more than a hundred years ago in an Istanbul convent; and various episodes involving plunder, pilferage and puzzling forgeries. The saga includes a monastery in the Judaean desert, a Jewish book dealer trying to flee Paris as the Nazis closed in, a French freedom fighter and an anonymous billionaire collector.
At the center is an ancient volume, its parchment recycled into a 13th-century prayer book. And at the climax we see those old folios, charred at the edges and scarred by dripping wax from the candles of devout monks, being meticulously studied for 12 years by an international team using the most advanced imaging technologies of the 21st century. And what is found is more revelatory than had ever been expected.
The Archimedes Palimpsest has precisely this history. It really does begin with a 10th-century copy of Archimedes’ third-century B.C. writings. Three centuries later they were scraped off the parchment, which was reused — creating a “palimpsest.” And while there aren’t enough dead bodies or secret cabals to support a full-fledged thriller, there really is a sense of excitement in the account of the book’s history, restoration and meanings, at an exhibition at the Walters Art Museum here: “Lost and Found: The Secrets of Archimedes.”
Almost nothing about the tale is banal or ordinary. In a companion book, “The Archimedes Codex” (Da Capo), William Noel, the museum’s curator of manuscripts, describes how the saga was brought to its conclusion. In 1998, after reading about the Palimpsest’s sale at a Christie’s auction to an anonymous purchaser for $2 million, the museum’s director, Gary Vikan, suggested to Mr. Noel that he discover who bought it and whether it might be exhibited at the Walters.
The purchaser not only deposited the book with Mr. Noel but also provided funds for the project, as scientists and other experts took it apart for restoration and research. The owner, who remains anonymous, also stipulated that all the findings and images be made available to the public. (Next month Cambridge University Press is publishing a two-volume account of the team’s discoveries.)
It may be difficult, at first, to understand the fuss. At the exhibition’s start you come face to face with two leaves from the Palimpsest; all you see is a fragment of a ruined manuscript, charred, stained and inscribed with prayers. But lines of reddish text, scarcely visible, run perpendicular to those prayers. And you can also make out the ghost of a diagram, a spiral. Above these leaves a series of slides shows the same pages under colored lights, revealing various details.
The juxtaposition neatly demonstrates the challenge posed by the Palimpsest and the technology used to explore it. The effort is made more complicated by the Palimpsest’s nature. After being erased, each leaf was rotated 90 degrees and folded in half, one Archimedes page yielding two of the prayer book’s.
That book was apparently in use for centuries at the Monastery of St. Sabbas in the Judaean Desert. Its towers peek out of the rocks in one of David Roberts’s otherworldly Holy Land illustrations from 1842, shown here. But by then the book was gone. In 1844 a biblical scholar happened upon it at the Metochion of the Holy Sepulcher in Istanbul and saw the curious mathematics underneath; a leaf from the book was found in his estate and deposited at Cambridge University Library.
Then, in 1906, the Danish Archimedes scholar Johan Ludvig Heiberg saw the book in Istanbul and recognized seven treatises by Archimedes behind the prayers, making it the oldest source for his writings in existence and the sole source for two unknown works, “Method” and “Stomachion.” Heiberg deciphered much of the text and took photographs that he worked on in Copenhagen.
It was assumed that Heiberg discovered all there was to find out, which may be one reason that, when the battered volume was put on sale almost a century later, few buyers were panting after its riches.
What became startling to the Walters, though, was the extent of the restoration required. Through much of the 20th century the Palimpsest had disappeared. Heiberg’s photographs juxtaposed with leaves of the book show how ruinous that century was for its condition. Some leaves disappeared. Illustrations of Evangelists, forged to look medieval, were inexplicably painted on some pages.
As part of the restoration the book’s history was examined and is surveyed here. There was the devastating impact of World War I on Istanbul’s Greek communities, which affected a large number of artifacts. Some damage may have happened at the Metochion. Similar stains appear in another Metochion book at the Walters.
The exhibition also notes that in 1932 the Palimpsest had been offered for sale by a Jewish dealer in Paris, Salomon Guerson, who recognized its importance. But no purchasers were found. The suggestion is made that Guerson may have ultimately been responsible for the forged illustrations, seeking to raise money to escape Nazi-occupied Paris by creating a more attractive volume. (A green pigment used in the paintings was only available after 1938.) Later the Palimpsest came into the possession of Guerson’s friend Marie Louis Sirieix, a Resistance fighter whose daughter Ann married Guerson’s son; Ann put the manuscript up for sale in 1998.
The exhibition also explores the heroic restoration guided by Abigail Quandt, the museum’s senior conservator of manuscripts, as she attempted to dissolve mid-20th-century glues, examine fragments and remove debris, until contemporary technologies could reveal what the naked eye could not.
Some revelations have become public, including the discovery of two speeches from the great fourth-century B.C. orator Hyperides. In addition one of Archimedes’ works, “Stomachion,” was uncovered in enough detail to be interpreted by Reviel Netz, a classicist at Stanford University and co-author of the companion book: it was an attempt to examine how many ways a set of pieces can be arranged in the form of a square. Visitors are challenged to move colored pieces of felt to explore that question, a style of inquiry, Mr. Netz suggests, that had not been associated with Greek mathematics. As for the title “Stomachion,” the exhibition tells us: “In the ancient world, if you had a puzzle, you didn’t have a brain-teaser — you had stomach trouble.”
The show’s final gallery, which turns to the documents’ substance, is almost too cursory. Instead of the museum including a gallery detailing other restoration projects, it would have been far more illuminating to extend this mathematical section further.
Turn instead to the companion book and read about Archimedes’ geometric proofs. Mr. Netz argues that this manuscript’s diagrams may be closest to the ones Archimedes drew. They were not meant to be pictorial, he says. In fact, if they seemed to illustrate the conclusion too closely, they would appear more like examples than proofs.
So we see straight lines deliberately shown as curves; points placed off kilter; and here at the show, an unusual example in a discussion of floating bodies (the subject that led to the story of Archimedes leaping out of the bath in the ecstasy of insight and running naked outside shouting “Eureka!”). The diagram shows an inverted semicircle sitting inside an incomplete liquid sphere.
Archimedes, the exhibition suggests, created a “radical idealization of real-world phenomena.” But it may also be that he knew that the ideal world of straight lines and regular objects was only an approximation of the real world’s curves and complexities. Such approximations and calculations were among his preoccupations. Mr. Netz sees anticipations of 17th-century calculus and of other aspects of modern mathematics.
And we see, throughout, hints of someone standing triumphant at the borders of the ancient world, peering at us through accumulated catastrophes and layers of destruction, and surviving — just like the hero of any good thriller.

The Conservation of the Archimedes Palimpsest

The conservation of the Archimedes Palimpsest is undertaken by Abigail Quandt, Senior Conservator of Rare Books and Manuscripts at the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore. Her first priority was to ensure the continued safety of a very fragile historical document. Her second priority was to prepare the manuscript for imaging. This entailed disbinding the manuscript, as the under texts run through the gutter of the book. Work on disbinding the manuscript started in February 2000, and finished in November 2004.

The Disbinding Process

When the manuscript was deposited at Christie's for sale, it lay loose in its binding. For the purposes of safe handling the book was given a conservation binding, that kept the leaves secure between its boards, but which did nothing to alter the original construction.
Having disassembled the modern construction, and having revealed the structure of the spine as it was before the sale at Christie's, Quandt could begin to separate the quires in the manuscript from each other.
To start with all went according to plan. But then Quandt hit an unexpected problem. Part of the spine had been glued up in the second half of the twentieth century with a modern adhesive somewhat similar to Elmer's Wood Glue. As Quandt explains, this is actually tougher than the parchment to which it is applied, and extremely difficult to remove.
This has been the principal challenge, and the main reason why the disbinding of the manuscript has taken such a long time.
Once separated, the leaves had to be prepared for imaging. One of the first tasks was to discover the chemical in the parchment, and to discover how stable, or unstable, the manuscript actually was. This work was undertaken by the Canadian Conservation Institute, which has provided expert advice throughout the project. Here you see a core sample, the size of a pinhead, taken through the manuscript.
You can see the Archimedes text is nothing more than a stain at the top of the parchment. The parchment itself is made up of collagen. The collagen here is reasonably sound. However in moldy areas, it is disintegrating.
Abigail Quandt's work on the Archimedes Palimpsest is ongoing. Here you can see here working on one of the separated leaves.
Here are some of the procedures that Quandt undertook on the leaves, illustrated with snapshots.
Documenting the condition of the individual leaves. Quandt draws maps of each leaf, noting where there are problems, be they mold, wax, glue, or modern residues, such as blue tack and paper.
Mechanically removing the dirty wax from the parchment. The manuscript had been used for several hundred years as a prayer book, and it was used by candlelight. Large areas were covered in wax, and it was necessary to remove the wax that obscured the under text.
Unfolding damaged areas to reveal text. Pages of the manuscript were particularly fragile at the margins an in the gutter of the prayer book. Sometimes the parchment needed to be carefully unfolded to reveal areas that were subsequently imaged. In the illustration below, Ms. Quandt works on a small damaged area in the gutter. You see the area before treatment, during treatment, after treatment, and under ultraviolet light. The last image makes clear the Archimedes text, running vertically down the page.
Some areas were so fragile that they needed to be carefully supported using Japanese paper, to stabilize them before they were imaged.
The pages with the forgeries were particularly problematic, as they had been deliberately distressed, and in some cases paper guards had been glued onto them. These guards needed to be removed before the text could be successfully imaged.
Some stubs of once complete pages are particularly problematic. Here is a processed image of a stub. Quandt has removed the paper covering the left of this stub, but the paper on the right has yet to be taken off.
All the detritus from the Archimedes Palimpsest is meticulously logged and stored.
Finally the leaves are very carefully and locally humidified. Since the book is made of animal skin, the individual leaves do not lie flat like paper. To image the manuscript successfully, it was necessary for Quandt slightly to relax the parchment.
After each leaf was imaged, Abigail undertook further work to stabilize them and preserve them for the future. Finally each leaf was encased in a double sided frame. It is in these frames that the leaves are shown in the exhibition, and the leaves will stay in them when the manuscript is finally returned to its owner.

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