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The Requiem Mass in D minor

(K. 626) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was composed in
1791. The requiem was Mozart's last composition, and is one of his most popular
and most respected works. There has been a debate over how much of the music
Mozart managed to complete before his death, and how much was later composed by
his student Franz Xaver Süssmayr, or possibly others.


The Requiem is
divided into fourteen movements, with the following structure:

  • Introitus: Requiem aeternam (Choir)

  • Kyrie eleison (Choir)

  • Sequenz:

    • Dies irae (Choir)

    • Tuba mirum (Soprano, Alto, Tenor
      and Bass Solo)

    • Rex tremendae majestatis (Choir)

    • Recordare, Jesu pie (Soprano, Alto, Tenor
      and Bass Solo)

    • Confutatis maledictis (Choir)

    • Lacrimosa dies illa (Choir)

  • Offertorium:

    • Domine Jesu Christe (Choir with Solo

    • Versus: Hostias et preces (Choir)

  • Sanctus:

    • Sanctus Dominus Deus Sabaoth (Choir)

    • Benedictus (Solo Quartet then Choir)

  • Agnus Dei (Choir)

  • Communio:

    • Lux aeterna (Choir)


The Requiem is scored for 2 basset
in F, 2 bassoons,
2 trumpets in
D, 3 trombones
(alto, tenor & bass), timpani (2 drums), , and violins, viola and basso
, and organ or harpsichord).
The vocal forces include soprano, alto, tenor,
and bass soloists
and an SATB mixed choir.

Composition and completion

At the time of Mozart's death on 5 December
1791 he had only
completed the opening movement (Requiem aeternam) in all of the
orchestral and vocal parts. The following Kyrie (a double fugue), and most of
the Sequence (from Dies Irae to Confutatis), is complete only in
the vocal parts and the continuo (the figured
organ bass), though occasionally some of the prominent orchestral parts have
been briefly indicated, such as the violin part of the Confutatis and
the musical bridges in the Recordare. The last movement of the Sequence,
the Lacrimosa, breaks off after only eight bars and was unfinished. The
following two movements of the Offertorium were again partially done -- the Domine
Jesu Christe
in the vocal parts and continuo (up until the fugue, which contains
some indications of the violin part) and the Hostias in the vocal parts

In the 1960s a sketch for an Amen
fugue was discovered, which some musicologists (Levin, Maunder) believe belongs
to the Requiem at the conclusion of the Sequence after the Lacrimosa. H.C. Robbins Landon argues that this Amen fugue
was not intended for the Requiem, rather that it "may have been for a
separate unfinished Mass in D minor" to which the Kyrie K341 also
belonged. There is, however, compelling evidence placing the "Amen
Fugue" in the Requiem based on current Mozart scholarship. Firstly, the
principal subject is comprised of the main theme of the requiem (stated at the
beginning, and throughout the work) in strict inversion. Secondly, it is found
on the same page as a sketch for the Rex Tremendae (together with a sketch for
the overture of his last opera The
Magic Flute
), and thus surely dates from late 1791. The only place where
the word 'Amen' occurs in anything that Mozart wrote in late 1791 is in the
Sequence of the Requiem. Thirdly, as Levin points out in the foreword to his
completion of the Requiem, the addition of the Amen Fugue at the end of the
Sequence results in an overall design that ends each large section with a

The eccentric count Franz
von Walsegg
commissioned the Requiem from Mozart anonymously through
intermediaries acting on his behalf. The count, an amateur chamber musician who
routinely commissioned works by composers and passed them off as his own,
wanted a Requiem mass he could claim he composed to memorialize the recent
passing of his wife. Mozart received only half of the payment in advance, so
upon his death his widow Constanze was keen to have the work completed
secretly by someone else, submit it to the count as having been completed by
Mozart and collect the final payment. Joseph
von Eybler
was one of the first composers to be asked to complete the
score, and had worked on the movements from the Dies irae up until the Lacrimosa.
In addition, a striking similarity between the openings of the Domine Jesu
movements in the requiems of the two composers suggests that Eybler
at least looked at later sections. Following this work, he felt unable to
complete the remainder, and gave the manuscript back to Constanze Mozart.

The task was then given to
another composer, Franz Xaver Süssmayr, who had already helped
the ailing Mozart in writing the score, since in his final days the composer's
limbs had become extremely swollen. Süssmayr borrowed some of Eybler's work in
making his completion, and added his own orchestration to the movements from
the Dies Irae onward (the Kyrie was orchestrated before either Süssmayr or Eybler began
their work), completed the Lacrimosa, and added several new movements
which a Requiem would normally comprise: Sanctus, Benedictus, and
Agnus Dei. He then added a final section, Lux aeterna by adapting
the opening two movements which Mozart had written to the different words which
finish the Requiem Mass, which according to both Süssmayr and Mozart's wife was
done according to Mozart's directions. Whether or not that is true, some people
consider it unlikely that Mozart would have repeated the opening two sections
if he had survived to finish the work completely. However, the fact that the
work ends with a recapitulation of the first movement creates a work which,
overall, displays characteristics of sonata form,
which may help to authenticate the idea for the repetition of the first
movement as the final movement. As has often been stated, Mozart was not the
only composer to do this, and many requiems written before his repeat the first
movement as the last. (In regular Masses a similar practice existed where the
last movement, the Agnus Dei, was indicated only by the words "ut
Kyrie", "as the Kyrie".)

Other composers may have helped
Süssmayr. The elder composer Maximilian
is suspected of having completed the orchestration of the Domine
for Süssmayr. The Agnus Dei is suspected by some scholars[citation needed] to have been
based on instruction or sketches from Mozart because of its similarity to a
section from the Gloria of a previous Mass (K.220) by Mozart, as was first
pointed out by Richard Maunder. Many of the arguments dealing with this matter,
though, center on the perception that if part of the work is high quality, it
must have been written by Mozart (or from sketches), and if part of the work
contains errors and faults, it must have been all Süssmayr's doing. A frequent
meta-debate is whether or not this is a fair way to judge the authorship of the
parts of the work.

Another controversy is the
suggestion that Mozart left explicit instructions for the completion of the
Requiem on "little scraps of paper." It is commonly believed this
claim was made by Constanza Mozart after it was public knowledge that the
Requiem was actually completed by Süssmayr as a way to increase the impression
of authenticity.

The completed score, initially by
Mozart but largely finished by Süssmayr, was then dispatched to Count Walsegg
complete with a counterfeited signature of Mozart and dated 1792. The various
complete and incomplete manuscripts eventually turned up in the 19th century, but
many of the figures involved did not leave unambiguous statements on record as
to how they were involved in the affair. Despite the controversy over how much
of the music is actually Mozart's, the commonly performed Süssmayr version has
become widely accepted by the public. This acceptance is quite strong, even
when alternate completions provide logical and compelling solutions for the
work. A completion dating from 1819 by Sigismund Neukomm has recently been
recorded under the baton of Jean-Claude Malgoire. Salzburg-born Neukomm, a
student of Joseph Haydn, provided a concluding Libera me,
for a performance of the Requiem on the feast of St Cecilia in Rio
de Janeiro at the behest of Nunes Garcia.

History of the
Requiem (timeline)

  • February
    , 1791:
    Anna, Count von Walsegg's wife, passed away at the
    age of 20.

  • mid-July: A messenger (probably Franz Anton
    Leitgeb, the Count's steward) arrived with note asking Mozart to write a
    Requiem Mass.

  • mid-July: Commission from Domenico
    Guardasoni, Impresario of the Prague National Theater to compose the
    opera, La clemenza di Tito, for the festivities surrounding the
    coronation on September 6 of Leopold II as King of Bohemia.

  • August: Mozart works mainly on La clemenza di
    Tito; completed by September 5.

  • August 25: Mozart leaves for Prague.

  • September 6: Mozart conducts premiere of La
    clemenza di Tito

  • mid-September - September 28: Revision and
    completion of The Magic Flute.

  • September 30: Premiere of The Magic Flute.

  • October 7: Completed concerto in A for

  • October 8 - Nov. 20: Mozart worked on the
    Requiem and a Cantata.

  • November 20: Confined to the bed due to his

  • December 5: Mozart died shortly after
    midnight of acute rheumatic fever[citation needed].

  • December 7: Burial in St. Marx Cemetery.

  • December 10: Requiem performed in St. Michael
    for a memorial for Mozart by the staff of the Theater auf der Wieden.

  • early-March 1792: probably the time Süssmayr
    finished the Requiem.

  • January 2, 1793: Performance of Requiem for
    Constanze's benefit arranged by Gottfried van Swieten.

  • early December 1793: Requiem delivered to the

  • December 14 1793: Requiem performed in the
    memory of the Count's wife in the church at Wiener-Neustadt.[1]

  • February 14, 1794: Requiem performed again in
    Patronat Church at Maria-Schutz on Semmering

  • 1799: Breitkopf & Hartel published the

  • 1809: Requiem was performed at Haydn's
    funeral on June 15 at Vienna

  • 1825: Debates started over authorship of

  • 1833: Eybler suffered stroke while conducting
    a performance of Mozart's Requiem. He died in 1846.


Since the 1970s several
musicologists, dissatisfied with the traditional "Süssmayr"
completion, have attempted alternative completions of the Requiem. These include
, Duncan
, C.
Richard F. Maunder
, H.C. Robbins Landon, Robert
D. Levin
and Simon Andrews. Each version follows a distinct
methodology for completion; for example, the Beyer edition makes revisions to Süssmayr's orchestration in an attempt to
create a more Mozartian style, whereas Robbins Landon has chosen to orchestrate
parts of the completion using the partial work by Eybler, thinking that
Eybler's work is a more reliable guide of Mozart's intentions. Maunder's
edition dispenses completely with the parts known to be written by Süssmayr,
but retains the Agnus Dei after discovering an extensive paraphrase from
an earlier Mass (Kv.220). Andrews' and Levin's versions retain the structure of
Süssmayr while adjusting orchestration, voice leading and in some cases
rewriting entire sections in an effort to make the work more Mozartean. For
example, in the Levin and Andrews versions, the Sanctus fugue is completely
rewritten and reproprortioned and the Benedictus is restructured to allow for a
reprise of the Sanctus fugue in the key of D (rather than Süssmayr's use of B

Both Maunder and Levin use the
sketch for the Amen fugue discovered in the 1960s to compose a longer and more
substantial setting to the words "Amen" at the end of the Sequence.
In the Süssmayr version, "Amen" is set to the last two chords of the
Lacrimosa: the Andrews version uses the Süssmayr ending. Maunder and Levin
recompose the ending of the Lacrimosa to lead to an entire movement with
"Amen" as the text. Other authors have also attempted the completion.

Myths surrounding the Requiem

The Requiem has a complex
history, riddled with deception and manipulation of public opinion. The work
was commissioned by a count who wanted to pass off the work as his own[2],
so the circumstances of the commission were kept secret. Upon Mozart's death,
Constanze had the work completed by other composers, but to receive final
payment, their assistance had to remain a secret. At the same time, Constanze
wanted to present the work as having been written by Mozart to completion, so
as to receive revenue from the work. When it became known that others beside
Mozart had a hand in writing the Requiem, Constanze insisted that Mozart
left explicit instructions for the work's completion.

With all of these levels of
deceptions and secrets, it is inevitable that many myths would emerge with
respect to the circumstances of the work's completion. One series of myths
surrounding the Requiem involves the role Antonio
played in the commissioning and completion of the Requiem and in
Mozart's death generally. While the most recent retelling of this myth is Peter
's play Amadeus and the movie
made from it, it is important to note that the source of misinformation was
actually a 19th century play by Alexander
, Mozart and Salieri, which was turned into an opera by Rimsky-Korsakov and subsequently used as
the framework for Amadeus [3],

While Amadeus was never
intended to be historically accurate, many people have taken it as fact,
reawakening the myth started in the 19th century. The following explores myths
surrounding the Requiem.

Some of the most commonly held
myths about Mozart's Requiem are:

  • Myth: Antonio Salieri commissioned the Requiem
    from Mozart so it could be played at Mozart's own funeral after Salieri
    poisoned the composer.

    • Reality: The Requiem was actually commissioned by Franz von Walsegg so he could pass it off
      as his own to memorialize the death of his wife. Count von Walsegg, an amateur musician,
      often commissioned works by composers and performed them with friends in
      musicales as his own. The count took the extra step of using a messenger
      to take extra precautions to maintain confidentiality, given that this
      event was much more public than the private musicales that he was
      accustomed to using for representing "his" works.

  • Myth: Antonio
    helped to complete the Requiem on the deathbed of

    • Reality: At Mozart's death, Constanze took on the
      responsibility of the Requiem, engaging a series of composers to attempt
      the completion, the last of which was Süssmayr. There is nothing to
      suggest that Salieri had anything to do with any part of the Requiem.
      This myth was incorporated into Pushkin's play, and in turn, the film
      version of "Amadeus".

  • Myth: Mozart actively worked on the Requiem
    up to the moment he died.

    • Reality: In the last days of his life he had become
      too sick (his hands were swollen) to work on it any more. He did have the
      Requiem (as far as it went) sung to him on one of his last days
      (reportedly the Lacrimosa moved him to tears), and there is a report of
      him trying to voice drum parts at the very end of his life, but the
      notion of Mozart working through the night just before he died is not

  • Myth: It was played at Mozart's funeral.

    • Reality: Mozart died in the early hours of December
      , 1791,
      had a small funeral and was buried in an unmarked grave. A memorial
      service on December 10, 1791 was
      organized by Mozart's friend and librettist, Emanuel Schikaneder, at which one of the
      completed movements (the Introitus) might have been performed; we do not
      know what music was in fact played.

  • Myth: Everything after the Lacrimosa was composed
    by Süssmayr.

    • Reality: Although the Lacrimosa breaks off
      incomplete after 8 bars, as noted above, the vocal and continuo of the Domine
      and the vocal parts of the Hostias are in Mozart's hand.
      The complexity of the Domine Jesu, with its frequent use of counterpoint
      and three fugues, would be very unlikely as the work of Süssmayr, given
      the nature of the Hosanna fugue which he did compose.

  • Myth: Mozart gave Süssmayr detailed instructions
    on how to complete the Requiem.

    • Reality: This myth was started by Constanze when
      the fact that Mozart left the Requiem unfinished at his death became
      public knowledge. To maximize the value of the Requiem, and improve
      Constanze's security, the public had to believe that Mozart somehow
      guided the entire work. Exactly what Mozart might have told Süssmayr
      about the Requiem is not clear. Both Constanze and Süssmayr created the
      myth of Mozart leaving "scraps of paper" with "detailed
      instructions", but it was ultimately discovered that it was untrue.
      She and Süssmayr stated that they were on other "scraps of
      paper", but it was discovered that the remainder of the Requiem was
      sketched out on blank manuscript.

  • Myth: Süssmayr was Mozart's pupil.

    • Reality: As with the "scraps of paper",
      Constanze promoted Süssmayr as a pupil of Mozart to maximize the
      perceived value of the Requiem after it became known that Mozart left the
      Requiem unfinished at his death. Süssmayr was more of a colleague and
      friend to the Mozarts and even accompanied Constanze on her spa trips in
      1791. Süssmayr did not study with Mozart. There is discussion in some of
      the sources cited in this article of the possibility that Süssmayr was
      actually having an affair with Constanze, and that Constanze's initial
      reluctance to engage Süssmayr to complete the Requiem upon Wolfgang's
      death was due to a "lover's quarrel".

  • Myth: The movie "Amadeus" created all
    of the confusion surrounding the history of the Requiem

    • Reality: The confusion between myth and reality
      regarding the events surrounding the commission, composition, completion
      and release of the Requiem stem from much earlier than the theater and
      movie production of Amadeus. First of all, Amadeus in both
      its movie and play forms, was based on Alexander Pushkin's play The
      Little Tragedy of Mozart and Salieri
      , which contained many of the
      falsehoods that were ultimately passed on in Amadeus.

Constanze Mozart
and the Requiem after Mozart's death

The confusion surrounding the
circumstances of the Requiem's composition was created in a large part by
Mozart's wife, Constanze. Constanze had a difficult task in front of her. She
had to keep secret the fact that the Requiem was unfinished at Mozart's death,
so she could collect the final payment from the commission. For a period of
time, she also needed to keep secret the fact that Mozart had anything to do
with the composition of the Requiem at all in order to allow Count Walsegg the
impression that he wrote the work. Once she received the commission, she needed
to carefully promote the work as Mozart's so she could continue to receive
revenue from the work's publication and performance. During this phase of the
Requiem's history, it was still important that the public accepted that Mozart
wrote the whole piece, as it would fetch larger sums from publishers and the
public if it were completely by Mozart.

It is Constanze's efforts that
created the flurry of half-truths and myths almost instantly after Mozart's
death. Source materials written soon after Mozart’s death contain serious
discrepancies which leave a level of subjectivity when assembling the
"facts" about Mozart’s composition of the Requiem. For
example, at least three of the conflicting sources, both dated within two
decades following Mozart’s death, cite Constanze
(Mozart’s wife) as their primary source of interview information. In
1798, Friedrich Rochlitz, the German biographical author and amateur composer,
published a set of Mozart anecdotes which he claimed to have collected during
his meeting with Constanze in 1796.[4] The Rochlitz publication makes the following statements:

  • Mozart was unaware of his commissioner’s
    identity at the time he accepted the project.

  • He was not bound to any date of completion of
    the work

  • He stated that it would take him around four
    weeks to complete.

  • He requested, and received, 100 ducats at the
    time of the first commissioning message.

  • He began the project immediately after
    receiving the commission.

  • His health was poor from the outset; he
    fainted multiple times while working

  • He took a break from writing the work to
    visit the Prater with his wife.

  • He shared with his wife that for certain he
    was writing this piece for his own funeral.

  • He spoke of "very strange thoughts"
    regarding the unpredicted appearance and commission of this unknown man.

  • He noted that the departure of Leopold to
    Prague for the coronation was approaching.

The most highly disputed of these
claims is the last one, the chronology of this setting. According to Rochlitz,
the messenger arrives quite some time before the departure of Leopold for the
coronation, yet we have record of his departure occurring in mid-July 1791.
However, Constanze was in Baden during all of June to mid-July, she would not
have been present for the commission or the drive they were said to have taken
together.[4] Furthermore, The
Magic Flute
(except for the Overture and March of the Priests) was
completed by mid-July. La Clemenza Di Tito was commissioned by
mid-July.[4] There was no time for Mozart to work on the Requiem on
the large scale indicated by the Rochlitz publication in the time frame

Also in 1798, Constanze is noted
to have given another interview to Franz Xaver Niemetschek[5], another biographer looking to publish a compendium of
Mozart's life. He published his biography in 1808, containing the following
claims about Mozart’s receipt of the Requiem commission:

  • Mozart received the commission very shortly
    before the Coronation of Emperor Leopold II, and before he received
    the commission to go to Prague.

  • He did not accept the messenger’s request
    immediately; he wrote the commissioner and agreed to the project stating
    his fee, but urging that he could not predict the time required to
    complete the work.

  • The same messenger appeared later, paying
    Mozart the sum requested plus a note promising a bonus at the work’s

  • He started composing the work upon his return
    from Prague.

  • He fell ill while writing the work

  • He told Constanze "I am only too
    conscious," he continued, "my end will not be long in coming:
    for sure, someone has poisoned me! I cannot rid my mind of this

  • Constanze thought that the Requiem was overstraining
    him; she called the doctor and took away the score.

  • On the day of his death he had the score
    brought to his bed.

  • The messenger took the unfinished Requiem
    soon after Mozart’s death.

  • Constanze never learned the commissioner’s

This account, too, has fallen
under scrutiny and criticism for its accuracy. According to letters, Constanze
most certainly knew the name of the commissioner by the time this interview was
released in 1800.[5] Additionally, the Requiem was not given to the messenger
until some time after Mozart’s death.[4] This interview contains the only account of the claim
that Constanze took the Requiem away from Wolfgang for a significant duration
during his composition of it from Constanze herself[4]. Otherwise, the timeline provided in this account is
historically probable. However, the most highly accepted text attributed to
Constanze is the interview to her second husband, Georg Nikolaus von Nissen.[4] After Nissen’s death in 1826, Constanze released the
biography of Wolfgang (1828) that Nissen had compiled, which included this
interview. Nissen states:

  • Mozart received the commission shortly before
    the coronation of Emperor Leopold and before he received the commission to
    go to Prague.

  • He did not accept the messenger’s request immediately;
    he wrote the commissioner and agreed to the project stating his fee, but
    urging that he could not predict the time required to complete the work.

  • The same messenger appeared later, paying
    Mozart the sum requested plus a note promising a bonus at the work’s

  • He started composing the work upon his return
    from Prague.

The Nissen publication lacks
information following Mozart’s return from Prague.[4]

From the various accounts of
Constanze’s words, historians try to assemble the details of Mozart’s “Requiem”
commission and completion.

The autograph at
the 1958 World's Fair

The autograph of the Requiem
was placed on display at the World's Fair in 1958 in Brussels. At
some point during the fair, someone was able to gain access to the manuscript,
tearing off the bottom right-hand corner of the second to last page (folio
99r/45r), containing the words "Quam olim d: C:" (an instruction that
the "Quam olim" fugue of the Domine Jesu was to be repeated
"da capo", at the end of the Hostias). To this day the perpetrator
has not been identified and the fragment has not been recovered. [6]

If the most common authorship
theory is true, then "Quam olim d: C:" might very well be the last
words Mozart wrote before he died. It is probable that whoever stole the
fragment believed that to be the case.


Selected recordings,
alphabetically by conductor:

  • Claudio
    conducting the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded live in
    1999 and released in 1999 by Deutsche Grammophon.

  • Daniel Barenboim conducting the Paris Symphony
    Orchestra and Paris Symphony Chorus. Released in 1990 by EMI Classics.
    Soloists are Kathleen Battle (Soprano), Ann Murray (Mezzo Soprano), David
    Rendall (Tenor), Matti Salminen (Bass).

  • Frieder
    conducting the Stuttgart Baroque Ensemble. Recorded in
    2000 and released in 2002 by Carus-verlag.

  • Leonard Bernstein conducting the Bavarian
    Radio Symphony Orchestra. Recorded in 1986 and released in 1989 by
    Deutsche Grammophon.

  • Karl
    conducting the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded in 1971
    and released in 1975 by Deutsche Grammophon. Soloists are: Edith Mathis
    (soprano), Julia Hamari (Alt), Wieslaw Ochman (tenor), Karl Ridderbusch
    (Bass). Organist is Hans Haselböck.

  • Sergiu Celibidache conducting the Munich
    Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded live in 1995 and released in 2004 by EMI

  • John Eliot Gardiner conducting the English
    Baroque Soloists. Released in 1990 by Philips.

  • Gregory
    conducting the boys and girls choir of The Madeleine
    Choir school with symphony in The Cathedral of the Madeleine.

  • Carlo Maria Giulini conducting the
    Philharmonia Orchestra and Chorus(London). Released in 1979 by Angel.

  • Nikolaus Harnoncourt conducting the
    Vienna Concentus Musicus. Recorded in 2003 and released in 2004 by
    Deutsche Harmonia Mundi.

  • Philippe Herreweghe conducting the
    Orchestre des Champs Elysees. Recorded live in 1994 and released in 1997
    by Harmonia Mundi.

  • Christopher Hogwood conducting the Academy
    of Ancient Music Chorus & Orchestra, and Westminster Cathedral Boys
    Choir. Recorded in 1983 and released in 1984 by Editions de L'Oiseau-Lyre.
    Performance of the Maunder completion.

  • Herbert von Karajan conducting the
    Berliner Philharmoniker. Recorded in 1975 on September 27 and 28 and
    released on Deutsche Grammophon.

  • Herbert von Karajan conducting the Wiener
    Philharmoniker. Recorded in 1986 and released on Deutsche Grammophon.
    Soloists are Anna Tomowa-Sintow (Soprano), Helga Müller
    Molinari (Alt/contralto), Vinson
    (Tenor), Paata Burchuladze (Bass).

  • Ton
    conducting the Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra. Recorded live in
    1989 and released in 1990 by Erato-Disques.

  • Zdenek
    conducting the Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded
    in 1985 and released in 1986 by OPUS.

  • Sir Neville Marriner conducting the Academy of
    St. Martin in the Fields. Recorded in 1990 and released in 1991 by

  • Riccardo
    conducting the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded in 1987
    and released in 1987 by EMI Classics. Awarded a "Timbre de

  • Roger Norrington conducting The London
    Classical Players & The Schutz Choir of London. Recorded in 1992 by
    Emi Records for Virgin Classics Limited. Performance of the Druce

  • Martin Pearlman conducting the Boston
    . Recorded in 1995 and released on Telarc
    . This was the first period instrument recording of the Robert
    D. Levin

  • Helmuth
    conducting the Bach-Collegium Stuttgart. Released in
    1979/1987 by CBS Schallplatten GmbH/CBS Records. Rilling later re-recorded
    the Requiem with the completion by Robert
    D. Levin
    in 1991 for Hanssler Classic.

  • Jordi
    conducting Le Concert des Nations and La Capella Reial de
    Catalunya; Montserrat Figueras, Claudia Schubert, Gerd Türk, and Stephan
    Schreckenberger, soloists. Released in 1992/1998 & 2000 by Astrée/Auvidis

  • Peter
    conducting the Dresden State Orchestra. Recorded in 1987 and
    released in 1990 by Philips.

  • Mikhail "Misha" Shtangrud conducted
    the Burbank Chorale and a twenty-two piece orchestra on a 2006 recording
    released by the Burbank Chorale. (LISTEN) [1][2]

  • Robert Shaw conducting the Atlanta
    Symphony Orchestra. Recorded in 1986 and released in 1990 by Telarc.

  • Sir Georg
    conducting the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded in 1991
    and released in 1992 by Decca.

  • Yuri
    conducting the Moscow Philharmonic Orchestra & Stat
    Academic Russian Chorus. Recorded in 1983 and released in 1995 by Melodiya -
    The Russian Label. Soloists are Nadezhda Krasnaya (Soprano), Evgenia
    Gorokhovskaya (Mezzo Soprano), Yuri Marusin (Tenor), Sergei Leiferkus

  • Christian Thielemann conducting the
    Munich Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded and released in 2006 by Deutsche

  • Jos van Veldhoven conducting The Netherlands
    Bach Society. Recorded live in 2001 and released in 2002 by Channel

  • Bruno
    conducting the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded in 1937.
    First 20th-century recording.

  • Bruno
    conducting the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. Recorded live in
    1956 and released in 1996 by Orfeo.

  • Franz Welser-Möst conducting the London
    Philharmonic Choir & Orchestra. Recorded in 1989 and released in 1990
    by EMI Classics.


  1. ^ This is not verifiable by the sources
    of the Neukloster in Wiener Neustadt!

  2. ^ Machlis, Joseph and Forney,
    Kristine. "Mozart and Chamber Music." The Enjoyment of Music: An
    Introduction to Perceptive Listening. 9th Ed. W.W. Norton & Company:

  3. ^ Gregory Allen Robbins. "Mozart
    & Salieri, Cain & Abel: A Cinematic Transformation of Genesis
    4." Journal of Religion and Film: Vol. 1, No. 1 April 1997 Journal of Religion and

  4. ^ a b c d e f g Landon, H. C. Robbins
    1791: Mozart's Last Year. New York: Schirmer

  5. ^ a b Steve Boerner (December
    , 2000).
    "K. 626:
    Requiem in D Minor
    ". The Mozart Project.

  6. ^ Facsimile of
    the manuscript's last page, showing the missing corner


  • C. R. F. Maunder (1988). Mozart's Requiem: On Preparing a New
    . Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN

  • Christoph Wolff (1994). Mozart's Requiem: Historical and
    Analytical Studies, Documents, Score
    . Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN

  • Brendan Cormican (1991). Mozart's death - Mozart's
    requiem : an investigation
    . Belfast, Northern Ireland: Amadeus Press. ISBN

  • Heinz Gärtner (1991). Constanze Mozart : after the
    . Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press. ISBN

Video Performances of Mozart's Requiem

Audio Performances
of Mozart's Requiem

Scores of Mozart's Requiem

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